Hydraulically fracturing a shale formation creates fissures so oil and gas can be released and collected from the shale. This process occurs during the well completion phase. Water and a proppant, like sand, make up 98-99.5 percent of the fracturing fluid. The proppant is used to prop open the newly-created fissures so the oil and gas can migrate to the bore hole. The remaining percentage of the fluid includes a variety of chemicals that are used to prevent friction, corrosion and scaling of the casing. The chemicals are also meant to control microorganism growth and remove drilling mud.
This map captures the reporting and disclosure regulations concerning the use of these chemicals: what must be disclosed, when disclosure must occur, who the information is disclosed to, and whether trade secrets are exempted from disclosure. The map also compares regulatory frameworks concerning the reuse, recycling, and/or disposing water used for hydraulic fracturing.
This map includes laws for 17 states and federal rules for lands and minerals managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the U.S. Forest Service, current as of November 25, 2015.